Adam Smith

Economist and philosopher of the Scottish Enlightenment best known for his landmark contribution to modern economics.

Alexis de Tocqueville

Alexis de Tocqueville was a French historian and political scientist best known for the work Democracy in America on the American political system.

Charles Dickens

Charles Dickens was one of the greatest Enlighsh writers and social critics. Many of his works are an insight into the world of the British Industrial Revolution.

Charles Peirce

Charles Peirce was an American philosopher and logician. His works span a plethora of disciplines, and he has made sizeable contributions to each.

David Ricardo

David Ricardo made essential contributions to classical economics and has been called the one of the most influential classical economists.

Frank Fetter

Fetter was an American economist notable for his unified theory of distribution explaining the relationship among capital, interest, and rent.

George Charles Selden

George Charles Selden wrote a groundbreaking study of investment psychology. The expression “psychology of the stock market” is his.

Herbert Spencer

Herbert Spencer was an English philosopher and sociologist caricatured by “survival of the fittest”. Recent scholarship has begun repairing his theory.

Issac Newton

Newton’s conception of the Universe as based upon Natural and rationally understandable laws became Enlightenment ideology as a core principle.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Rousseau was one of the great French philosophes, whose influence permeates nearly every field of the humanities and social sciences.

John Bates Clark

John Bates Clark was a neoclassical economic who contributed to marginalism and is considered one of the greatest American economists.

John Locke

English philosopher whose pioneering beliefs of liberalism would heavily influence the Enlightenment and various political revolutions.

John Stuart Mill

Mill’s contributions to social and political theory and political economy render him one of the greatest nineteenth-century English-speaking philosophers.

Ludwig Wittgenstein

Wittgenstein was a British philosopher whose work is his analytic philosophy on the logical relationship between propositions and the world.

Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson was an American Founding Father, and his ideals of democracy, republicanism and individual rights remain influential today.

Thomas Paine

Paine was one of the founding fathers of the United States. His ideas as a political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary persist.

Vladimir Ilyich Lenin

Lenin developed and extended Marx theory to a practical level with the Soviet Union. Lenin argued European imperialism was the final state of capitalism.

William Stanley Jevons

William Stanley Jevons was an English economist and logician who pioneered the marginal utility theory of value and developed Jevons Paradox.

Alfred Marshall

Marshall is one of the great economists of history. His work allowed economists to forecast price changes by observing supply and demand.

Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin was an English biologist known for his theory of evolution. Though biological, it has unquestionably influenced economic and social theory.

Charles MacKay

Charles Mackay was a Scottish writer. His work Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds has greatly influenced social psychology.

David Hume

David Hume was a Scottish historian, philosopher, and economist. His thoughts were influential in building the foundation of the United States.

Francis Bacon

Francis Bacon was a great English philosopher and one of the founders of modern political philosophy. His ideas influenced the creation of the United States.

Frederic Bastiat

Frederic Bastiat was a French political economist, statesman and classical liberal theorist. His ideas base the libertarian and Austrian schools of thought.

Henry George

Henry George was a notable American political economist. He inspired the economic philosophy of Georgism, which still influences modern America.

Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant was a great philosopher and one of the founders of the modern philosophy. His ideas influenced the creation of the United States.

James Mill

James Mill was a Scottish historian, economist, political theorist and philosopher who, among other works, was a founder of classical economics.

Jeremy Bentham

Jeremy Bentham was a British philosopher, jurist, social reformer, the founder of modern utilitarianism, and would influence welfarism.

John Dewey

John Dewey was one of the greatest American philosophers, psychologists and educators, and pioneered pragmatism and functional psychology.

John Maynard Keynes

John Keyes is often considered one of most influential classical economist, largely for the interventionist policies of Keynesian economics.

Karl Marx

Marx’s theory of class struggle and critique of the free market remain one of the most influential ideas in history, the polar of capitalism.

Thomas Hobbes

Hobbes was a great philosopher and one of the founders of the modern political philosophy, who lay the foundations for the idea of the social contract.

Thomas Malthus

Thomas Malthus was the founder of the population theory of classical economics. Though contentious, his ideas remain notable in the modern day.

Thorstein Veblen

Veblen was a great American economist who founded evolutionary economics based upon Darwinian principles and the social sciences.

William James

William James was an American philosopher and psychologist, who was one of the founders of pragmatism and functional psychology.